Injecting life into your school climate

This time of year we all, as administrators, want to have the best possible welcome back we can for our staff and our students.  There is no magic formula for this and you can’t always predict success.  You can, however, take a look at the climate of your school and make adjustments to your focus as it relates to student and staff culture.

I find myself today asking the following questions:

  1. Are the hallways of the building eye-catching?  Do they make staff and students want to be here, or are they bland and traditional?
  2. Are there more areas where we can showcase student work?
  3. Can we brighten up the look and feel of the hallways?  Can we put an emphasis on making all students welcome in our building, not just those that fit the ‘mold’ of jock/popular kid?
  4. Are we promoting a positive climate or perpetuating a traditional design that only those who ‘play the game’ feel welcome?
  5. What can I do with about 6 weeks until the start of school to change what we current have in place? My answers to the questions above tell me we need to make some changes.

I spent the week last week at the Jostens Renaissance conference in Orlando, FL.  If you have never attended one of their conferences I highly suggest you do so.  I have been a number of times and, at this point, feel that my mindset changed a little from this current conference.  I have believed for a long time that with our Renaissance focus that we would reward and recognize students and staff for doing great things.  We do this, in my opinion, still a bit to awkwardly.  Renaissance is not just about recognition, you see its about culture and climate.  The look and feel of a building is every bit as important as the recognition that students and staff receive.

So, I have work to do…time to get out the paint clothes and get moving on dressing up this blond bricked building.  We have painted some stuff here and there, but it is time to make a BIG SPLASH.

What do you do to make them feel welcome?  Send me some pictures if you don’t mind…I will post pictures of our work once it is complete.

Inspire others,



What do you expect?

I have been thinking a lot lately about expectations.  Specifically related to myself as an administrator, for my teachers, and my coaches.  Often times we talk about having ‘high expectations’, but what does that really mean?  In this post I aim to talk about setting expectations, the difference that exists between what we expect and what we accept, and finally having the guts to not settle for anything less than what you expect and/or want.


Among the common buzz words in education, high expectations gets thrown around a lot, I mean, A LOT.  I hear this used often in the context of letting people know what you want/wish them to do/complete/act as/behave like etc.  Last year I had 19 new members on staff (we have about 100 teachers for reference) and I asked each of them the same two questions both early in the year and then again later during a performance review:

1) Do you have high expectations of your kids? 2) Do you have high expectations of yourself?

Most of them had similar answers, along the lines of ‘I would like to’, ‘I hope so’, or even ‘No, and I need help in this area’.  Two of my veteran staff members, both of whom currently have rather high failure rates, asked the same questions identically: yes I do, which is why so many kids fail my class, they can’t live up to my expectations.  YIKES!!! I struggle so much with this position, this narrow and blind vision of what expectations are…

Expect vs Accept

I am a firm believer that you reap always what you sow, meaning that the efforts you put into whatever it is that you do are in direct correlation to what results you ultimately see.  When given the chance to describe the above classification of ‘high expectations’ the two teachers both told me that students don’t or won’t put in the time and effort that is necessary to pass their classes.  While, at times, this could be a true statement, it brings me to the same place I always arrive…what is the connection to what you are doing like in relation to their world; is it relevant, is it meaningful, or is it simply busy work (worksheets and vocabulary puzzles) that students won’t do?  For another post, Relationships, Relevance, and Rigor will be our focus at RSHS for the foreseeable future, but that would be chasing a squirrel now.  In essence, and back on point, I can summarize the difference between expectations as this:

Expectations are what you hope to see/get/gain/develop in your students, your team, your staff

Acceptance is what the bare minimum is, I will accept nothing less than ___________.

Most people would agree with these two statements, with potentially a minor modification to either or both they are essentially universal definitions of the two words.  I would, however, argue, that the two are so tightly aligned that those who struggle with student behavior, teacher behavior/performance, or achievement, miss the POINT.  Here, in my mind, is the POINT – I call it the Rise and Fall Principle…

Your students will either rise or fall to the level of expectation you are willing to accept.

Yep, that’s right – what you accept is what your ACTUAL expectations are…be that your expectations of students, athletes, or even yourself.  If you accept less, your expectations are less.  So if you have a high failure rate or poor classroom behaviors, I would argue that it is on you.  You are accepting less that what you stated you expected.

You don’t have to be mean, rude, strict, or “awful” to get your expectations and what you accept to match up – two key things must exist; 1) relationships – kids/staff/athletes must know you genuinely care about them for them to truly work ‘FOR’ you; 2) consistency in communication and follow through – if you don’t hold all to the same, if you allow one student to do whatever they choose or behave in a way that doesn’t meet the expectation, then you have settled for less.

The guts

When you share what you expect, you are making a contract with those you share with.  You are telling them an order exists and, provided it is maintained, all will achieve and be successful.  The mark of a great teacher or administrator is when that ‘order’ is not met.  How do you handle those who choose, for whatever reason, not to meet the expectation?  Do you ignore them and allow them to ‘fail’?  If you do, you have lowered your standards for all.  This is an area where I have struggled at times – nobody likes to call someone out, to have the uncomfortable conversation with an employee not living up to expectations, nor do teachers like to have to call the parent of a kid not doing what they are supposed to do.  But this is where movement happens.  Last year I made two of the most difficult decisions of my professional career, both related to personnel not living up to what I expected.  If I allowed them to continue, I was lowering my standard.  It meant me and my team taking on more responsibilities down the stretch of the school year, but I could not allow it to continue.

This is a pretty extreme example of holding to your expectations, but I did hear from a number of staff members that they appreciated the decision I made, and supported me in making the tough call.

This year, we will meet with our entire staff, outlining for them what we as an administrative team expect of them.  I would imagine that nearly all administrative teams do this, calling them expectations or non-negotiables or whatever the current jargon is.  Taking it a step further, my team will meet individually with each teacher, specifying what their role is and what we expect of them during the upcoming school year.  The expectation is different for each, sure the basic expectations are the same, but the big teacher leaders will have a different role on staff than the first year teacher right out of college.  It is important to let them know what you need from them and to find out how you, as their leader, can assist them.  The same is true of your students – not that you have time to meet individually with them, although you certainly could – letting them know, beyond what’s written on the syllabus or classroom management plan, what you expect of them and learning how you can help get them to those expectations.

End result

At the end of it all, it comes down to being clear in what you expect and being consistent in not settling for less than your expectations.  Sometimes we get caught up in setting a bar so high that only the superstar can reach it, that is why words like excellent, superior, distinguished, etc exist.  Set expectations that are realistic, attainable, and result in success for students or staff.  Those who excel will have no problem sailing past the expectation, they don’t need that extra push – those who may fall short are the ones who need us, dedicated educators, who don’t wish to see anyone fail.  Those who are the reason we are teachers.

I had some goals when I started this post and, without any editing, I will  post this raw level of thinking.  Did I hit my goal?

Until next time – yours in education




This past Friday, we embarked on a journey as a staff to learn from each other.  We held our first EdCamp-style professional development, and while some things will need to be modified, it was truly a success.

The Set Up

Initial set up of this process included showing a brief video to staff to explain what an EdCamp was and how it would be formatted.  The video link below is the one shown to staff

Although, many other great videos of EdCamp formats exist:

After showing the video, staff was given a list of some topics we had heard as an administrative staff as possible ‘needs’ and areas of current expertise that existed on the staff.  Items included: leading a thinking classroom, setting good learning targets, classroom management, use of technology in the classroom, Google in the classroom, special ed accommodations, and so forth.  We asked that staff reply to us via email if they were interested in starting the conversation on a particular topic.

The EdCamp

We were able to have 20 different sessions offered, in three time blocks, during this initial effort.  Our schedule included three 30 minute sessions, stacked back to back, in a concentrated area of the building.  The idea was to keep the rooms close together so we didn’t lose time in transition from session to session.

In many ways our EdCamp felt like being at a conference where you just happened to know everyone there.  Most of the rooms were full and the conversations were genuine.  I was pleased to see the level of engagement in the conversations from our staff and even more pleased at the ‘buzz’ in the hallways during transition from session to session.

Observations of EdCamp

* Powerful seeing a music teacher and several math teachers dialoguing about ‘real math’ and the connection to music.  Equally exciting to hear them discuss the math behind puzzles such as Rubik’s Cube.

* Laughter, genuine laughter…nearly every room had staff sharing a laugh over some topic (this made me fist pump a little)

* Two Career Academy teachers led a discussion on never working harder than their students; this is an important topic for us as we often times have teachers who do all the ‘heavy lifting’ and leave students working at a very low depth of knowledge level

*  Similarly, leading a thinking classroom had colleagues discussing and listening to one of the best in this area around having the students do the thinking and pushing it to higher levels

*  The sessions were TOO SHORT – we had them in 1/2 hour intervals and often the conversation was just heating up – we will move to probably 45-50 min per session next time around

*  Google in the classroom was a popular topic, with many staff asking me about it today as well.  It really puts the spotlight on getting technology not only into students hands but also arming staff with the know-how to use tech as a learning tool.   This session was a great starter kit for teachers who want to take that next step toward having students be independent and interdependent with technology and their learning.

*  Expertise – there is a lot of expertise with my staff, and in many areas.  We really need to continue learning with and from each other.  For the longest time we have relied on bringing in experts from everywhere on the planet but have not used the skill set we already have in place.  It was an awesome experience to see, hear, and feel the learning that took place between members of the same staff.

Teacher Feedback

“Loved it. Would love to have it again.”

“Yes-overwhelmingly positive response! More session time”

“I would love to go more in depth to help others.”

“I thought it was well worth our time….look forward to >”

“Thought the format was very good. Best PD in a while.”

Next Steps

As we move forward, I know we will be doing the EdCamp structured PD in our next building-wide PD day.  We have some edges to tighten up but given the positive feedback from staff, they will be excited to do this again.  We must make sure our focus is clear, however, and that we aren’t just chasing rabbits.  A survey will be created to identify what type of sessions staff would want, how many is too many during a session, and how we can support their learning after the day is complete.

Questions or Comments????


Thanks for reading…

Inspire others,

The Professional Educator

Monday marks the kickoff of American Education Week.  This is a week designed to shine the spotlight on the work of students, teachers, administrators, paraprofessionals, custodians, cafeteria workers, and parents as it relates to teaching and learning.  It is a week of recognition, celebration, and honor. As a building, we will have visitors from the community spending time with us in classrooms, parents touring the building, and special performances of the National Anthem by some of our outstanding performing arts students.

Let’s talk today about what it means to be a teacher…You have all heard the story of what a teacher makes…but here is a cool video by Taylor Mali that truly says what a teacher makes!

I will be delivering to staff donuts and coffee Monday morning – but more importantly I will be delivering to them their own business cards.  Yes, business cards.  That may seem odd, but I want my staff to know I view them as professionals – I want my community to know my teachers are professionals – I want my parents to know my teachers are professionals…professional educators.

What is a professional educator?  Is that different than a teacher?  Is it just another ‘buzz word’, a step toward a business model?  NO – not in my opinion.  I know the work of my staff, the hours they put in, the years of education they have accumulated.  My staff is not simply a teaching staff, my staff is a staff of professional educators.

As I go around on Monday to my staff, I will be thanking them not only for all the work they do, the hours they put in, but also for their dedication to the lives of young people.  Teachers do not put in the hours they do for a paycheck, we have all heard that before.  But did you realize that the average teacher pay in the United States, according to National Center for Education Statistics (2012), is $56, 069.  All teachers have a minimum of a Bachelor’s Degree, and many have Master’s Degrees, we even have one with a Doctorate Degree.  Think about what is asked of these amazing men and women each and every day…

Expectations and requirements of teachers:

  • Bachelor’s Degree
  • Continual professional development (5 college credits or 70 hours of school PD every 5 years)
  • Pass certain exams to be considered “Highly Qualified”
  • Teach classes of, on average, 24 kids per class (in many cases 6 classes per day)
  • Grade homework, tests, quizzes
  • Plan lessons of high quality
  • Implement the Common Core State Standards
  • Supervise school events, dances, games, etc
  • Be aware of bullying, drinking, tobacco, and drug prevention
  • Monitor behaviors of all students
  • Be a role model
  • Call, email, text, etc parents about the work students are doing, or perhaps not doing
  • Be technologically savvy

This is only a beginning, a partial list, but you get the point – teachers are not what so many believe them to be – they are not the people who simply take summers off, don’t work weekends, nor are they less intelligent that those in the private sector…TEACHERS ARE BRILLIANT, MOTIVATED, DEDICATED, AND CARING YEAR-ROUND EMPLOYEES.

But this doesn’t fit on a business card – they are so much more than just the word “teacher” – so I have chosen for my teachers to put “Professional Educator” on their business cards.  After all, they deserve it!  They are professional, they are educators, they are in a word AMAZING, or maybe INSPIRING, but truly they are EXCEPTIONAL.  I am very proud of the professional educators I get to be with each and every day.  I am honored to work along side them, to support them, and to do everything in my power to help them be successful.  Below is one of the business cards I will be handing out Monday…I do hope my professional educators appreciate them and understand the sentiment behind them.  I believe very strongly in those two words…Professional Educator

  •  business card








Create, Apply, Synthesize

Create, Apply, Synthesize – what do these three words have in common?  If you guessed they are all Level 4 verbs on the Webb’s Depth of Knowledge (DOK) chart, you guessed correctly.  Each of these are verbs that require students to extend their thinking, to dig deep into the minds and be meta-cognitive while going about the life of your average high school student.

Why then would I write about the DOK verbs in my blog?  Let’s be honest, it has been a while since I wrote anything in this blog – since July sitting poolside at the Jostens Renaissance conference in Phoenix, AZ.  The past few months have been hectic, harried, and extremely challenging.  But as I walked into Kris Comstock’s Junior English class here at Rock Springs High School on Thursday – it became apparent that the work we are doing, the efforts we are making to drive student thinking and processing to higher levels was beginning to provide dividends.

Mrs. Comstock has been with us at Rock Springs High School since before I was fortunate enough to be a part of this great staff a little over 7 years ago.  I have observed her classes many times, and seen students being creative and making posters, charts, and diagrams of people meant to be character analyses.  These are very good activities, and tend to push students’ levels of thinking.  But what I saw in Kris’ classroom yesterday was at a whole new level.  Perhaps she has done this before, but I was so very impressed with the student ownership of their learning, their ability to apply what they had learned to a new setting, and they level of creativity each student group showed in their presentations that I had to write about what I’d seen.

I asked the students if I could video their presentations, thinking I would post them to the school Facebook page (RSHS authentic) as a pat on the back.  But after watching the presentations live, I knew I needed to call special attention to the work of these 27 students and their classroom teacher.

I did post the videos on the Facebook page (they are too big to embed in this blog site) so below there is a link for you to watch all four groups.  The first group speaks about the over crowding of our high school, the packed classrooms and lunch room, the limited amount of time for lunch, and the hallways so full you can barely move.  I hear you Group 1-I may share this with the state facility folks when they visit us soon.  Group 2 sings an anti-bully plea (I apologize you can’t hear Alyssa’s voice very clear) that is an amazing statement about how each person is an individual and should be judged not on anything but who they truly are.  This really tugged at my heart strings and I so very much appreciate what this group had to say.  Group 3 signs a wonderful song (accompanied by Chyna on the guitar) about war, the unfairness, the individuals, and the families impacted by war.  Simply awesome!  And Group 4, not to be outdone speaks out through poem (unfortunately a couple members were missing on this day) also focused on the injustice of war.

To hear the students of this class, nearly all juniors in high school, speak out in protest of something they hold dear to themselves as unfair, unjust, or wrong made me think about what the world looks like to younger eyes.  It filled my heart with joy, my eyes with tears, and soul with hope.  We have amazing young men and women here at Rock Springs High School – and amazing men and women leading them in their classrooms.

Here is a link to our Facebook page:

A job well done…


Inspire others,

Jostens Renaissance – the air we breathe

For the sixth time in my career I find myself at the Jostens Renaissance national conference. This year we are in sunny Scottsdale, AZ and have already heard from some amazing people who share the same passions that I do; a love of kids, a desire to help kids achieve at previously unseen levels, and a constant thirst for knowledge. This year is different, surely, as each year is. Maybe there is a different feel with different leadership from Jostens, but the message is still crystal clear.  For me, this conference is a time to recharge my batteries, to be reacquainted with friends I have made around the country through this conference, and to further my knowledge to better help all my kids at RSHS.  I was reminded today that kids are amazing; they all have talents, dreams, and desires and maybe, just maybe, if we give them the opportunity, and a little quality air to fan the glowing embers that are these passions they keep buried deep inside themselves, just maybe we might start a fire!  Thus – I say, we must give kids the air they need to breathe through Jostens Renaissance.

When he wrote “(t)he Yukon lay a mile wide and hidden under three feet of ice. On top of this ice were as many feet of snow,” Jack London was referring to the mountainous world of the Yukon he paints as a picture in “To Build a Fire”.  If Jack London had sat with me today in the sessions I attended, (‘New to Jostens Renaissance by Dwight Carter and Steve Woolf; Creating Meaningful Learning Environments by Kevin Honeycutt; and the keynote address by Erik Wahl) he might have used the same phrasing to talk about the hidden talents of today’s America teenagers who do not get the recognition they deserve, need, crave, and live for…the air they breathe.  Perhaps the air they breathe is filled with what Kevin described as his home life, one of abuse and poverty.  Possibly the air they breathe could be filled with the discouragement given to Erik Wahl by his 4th grade teacher, who told him he was not good at art because he didn’t color inside the lines. (by the way, he is a world-renowned graffiti artist who’s paintings go for big money)

What is in the air your students breathe?  Is it toxic, or is it the kind of air that brings nurturing to them?  Do your students hang on every word, or do words crush them and their dreams.   In my presentation today, I shared Jake Bugg’s song “Lightning Bolt” as an attempt to spark a fire with my audience.  (here is a link to the video I showed – ) Jake says in his song “Everyone I see just want to walk with gritted teeth, but I just stand by and I wait my time…But when I see the signs I just jump on the lightning bolt.”  My intent was to impress upon student leaders, and the adult leaders that accompanied them to the presentation, that leadership is about opportunity – seize the opportunity to make a difference in someone else’s life.  You never know when the actions you take may just be the life-sustaining air they need to breathe.  This is my ‘lightning bolt’…What’s yours?

Thoughts on ‘Test Better, Teach Better’ Chapter 5: An Introduction to Test Building

Ok, so Popham gives us in this chapter the beginnings to building our own test items.  But he does so with a few, actually five, caveats.  This is a fairly short chapter, easily read, and quick with information.  I have summarized quickly below:

– Two types of possible test questions: 1) selected response – in which you choose the answer from a list (multiple choice or true/false) and; 2) constructed response – in which you provide the answer to the question via essay, short answer, free response, etc.

– Both types of possible questions have their pro’s and both have their con’s…we have heard them all, even prior to reading Popham’s list of +/-

– 5 big roadblocks in tests

1.  unclear directions

2. ambiguous statements

3. unintentional clues

4. complex phrasing

5. difficult vocabulary

* “(Y)ou’ll hopefully recall that the central mission of all such assessment is (1) to help you make valid inferences about your student so you can then (2) make better decisions about how to instruct those students.” (p. 69)

* “Never, never create a test just to be creating a test.” (p. 69)

* “Beyond the mission of making inferences about your students based on their test performances, there is no other reason to test those students.” (p. 70)

* “For every test that you create, review all items and directions from the perspective of your students.” (p. 70)

A good chapter, a quick read…now, hopefully you are up through Chapter 5 and ready for our meeting on Thursday.


Keep on reading,



Thoughts on ‘Test Better, Teach Better’ Chapter 4: Validity, Reliability, and Bias

Chapter 4 of Popham’s book brings to light a few things that I doubt many of us consider when writing our own tests, giving a book written test, or prior to our state-mandated ACT administration.  Three primary areas for this chapter focus on the validity of a test (or more importantly the validity of the test-based inference), reliability of the test (can it consistently provide similar results), and bias (is there anything that offends or unfairly penalizes test takers).

I really like the idea of being able to ascertain the content-related validity of a teacher written exam by using content specialist to assess your assessment.  Again, as Popham states, you need not do this on every single exam you write.  I do feel this process has some merit when considering final exams and possibly even unit exams.  You want to ensure you are making quality inferences about your students’ ability when based on a teacher constructed exam.

Key points:

* “The chief method of carrying out such content-related validity studies is to rely on human judgement.” (p. 47)

* “Valid assessment-based inferences about students don’t always translate into brilliant instructional decisions; however, invalid assessment-based inferences about students almost always lead to dim-witted or, at best, misguided instructional decisions.” (p. 51) – don’t know how I feel about ‘dim-witted’, but point taken

* “A teacher who is instructing students from racial/ethnic groups other than the teacher’s own racial/ethnic group might be wise to ask a colleague (or a parent) from those racial/ethnic groups to serve as a one-person bias review committee.” (p. 58)


Hope you are keeping up…we have a meeting this Thursday and we will discuss Chapters 1-5 (I will post the Ch 5 blog later today or tomorrow)


Happy reading,



Thoughts on ‘Test Better, Teach Better’ Chapter 3

Too many testing targets…that is what the author has titled this chapter.  In reality, this chapter focused on educational standards and the difficulties teaching and assessing too many of these standards.

As a classroom teacher, science as you all know, I was always one who felt quite strongly about their content.  Ask me what students must know about human anatomy and physiology and I will tell you – EVERYTHING.  Thus it was interesting to see the author discuss the challenge that is inherent in having content specialists identify the ‘must know’ essentials of a given content area.  I have watched this very thing for the past six or seven years play out during our spring curriculum mapping sessions.  I know I have asked departments to take deep looks at your content maps and identify targets that maybe could be moved out of the ‘proficiency’ target designation our district has chosen to use.  In talking with building department chairs the past few weeks, many of you told me you have agreed as a department on the specific content you must teach to mastery in specific courses.

We certainly have seen, in our own verbage, the prioritizing of standards the author described as ‘essential’, ‘highly desirable’, ‘desirable’.  We have done this work and, while some of you tell me privately you could trim/reprioritize further, we have moved this is more of a standardized direction as to what is to be taught.  But what about what is to be assessed?  Here is where the use of common assessments is essential. (be they formative or summative)

Truly the bulk of this chapter, to me, was affirmation of the work we have done with our curriculum mapping process.  But, as always, there are still a few powerful take-aways…

* “(m)ost citizens joyfully applaud the merits of any accountability strategy aimed at promoting students’ mastery of “demanding” content standards.  And yet, the two most important components of this accountability strategy typically malfunction.  The content standards are too numerous to teach, and far, far too numerous to test.” (p. 33)

*”Shallow coverage, almost by definition, will rarely lead to deep understanding.” (p. 33)

*”(i)f you use pre-assessments to determine what your students already know and can do, you’ll be better able to choose suitable instructional activities for those students.” (p. 35)

*”a whopping big difference between content standards that are simply sought and content standards that are truly taught.”

*”A content standard without an accompanying performance standard is like a play without a final act.  You can’t tell what the content standard really signifies until you know how students’ mastery of it will be assessed and, thereafter, until you know what sort of performance standard has been set on that assessment.” (p. 38)

Again, a chapter that reinforced a lot of the work we do-and shined some light on some things where we can keep getting better.

Keep on reading,




Thoughts on ‘Test Better, Teach Better’ Chapter 2

I am struck immediately by the analogy the author uses to connect curriculum and instruction.  Identifying curriculum as the end and instruction as the means to the end is a clear mental image and gives another way to view the connection between teaching and learning.

How powerful were the three instructional payoffs described as dividends to testing?  I could not agree more with the benefit of having a 1) more accurate understanding of the final destination; 2) clearer explanations and; 3) more appropriate practice activities.

1.  More accurate understanding of final destination – self explanatory, if you know where you want students to be and you make it crystal clear for them, most likely they will meet you there

2.  Clearer explanations – I am finding the more I am clear with what I want from staff and students in my role as principal, the more clear explanation I can provide for you.  I know everyone appreciates when I am very clear in my expectations, and I see much better results from staff and students when I am clear.

3.  Appropriate practice activities – why would you spend time practicing something you have already proven to be proficient?  Certainly there is argument to be made for repetition (use it or lose it skills) that is valid, but when attempting to provide new skills, don’t muddy the water with practice that focuses on old material or distracts from the skill you are attempting to have your students gain.

I liken all three of these to being a coach and having game film on your upcoming opponent.  I know people don’t want to be ‘teaching to a test’, I get that and don’t want that either (see quote #3 below).  But how do we know how/what the test in the real world will look like for students when we don’t know what their world will entail.  Again, back to the coaching analogy – if I have film on my upcoming opponent, and I usually did, I would spend quite a bit of time analyzing the film for my opponents strengths and weaknesses, their tendencies in certain situations, and attempt to identify areas and situations where my team would be most likely to have success.  I had my athletes watch the film and analyze the same things I did – they were the ones who would face the test, why not let them see the test before taking it – it certainly increased the odds they would be successful.  So my time with my athletes focused on 1) giving them a clear understanding of what their opponent would most likely try to do based on strengths and weaknesses, tendencies and previous performance; 2) clear expectations of what they were to do in situations that would undoubtedly arise in the contest; and 3) drill, drill, drill on the specific skills they would need when the contest arrived.

I appreciated the question of “what kind of cognitive demands will be imposed on students…” and how the term cognitive demands was defined as the intellectual activities in which a student must engage.  This made me curious about the alignment of the assignments and assessments I had used in my classroom.  Did I have assessment and practice that aligned with each other?  Did I have instruction that aligned with the way my students would be assessed? What cognitive demands (think Bloom’s Taxonomy) did I put on my students?  I can tell you, probably I didn’t push much further than applying, and usually was at a base level of wrote memorization when it came to assessment.  If I did it over again, would I realign my assessment thinking with my instruction and practice?  Most definitely…

Powerful quotes:

#1  “For students to truly master this curricular aim, what must be going on inside their heads?” (p. 25)

#2  “A student who possesses generalizable skill-mastery will be able to apply that mastery in all sorts of in-school and out-of-school settings.” (p. 25)

#3  “A test is only a representation, meaning that teachers must aim their instruction not at the tests, but toward the skill, knowledge, or affect that those tests represent.” (p. 27)

My final thought here will be this – teachers must understand going in what a test (curricular end) will be asking for in order to best decide what instruction (means) to utilize to best arm students with the necessary skills they will be needing.


Keep on reading!!!